Η Διατροφή στο Μπάσκετ

Οι αθλητές του μπάσκετ (ενήλικες) δαπανούν σε έναν αγώνα( ή και στην προπόνηση) τουλάχιστον 500 θερμίδες. Άρα η διατροφική υποστήριξη είναι σημαντική και για την αποφυγή γρήγορης κόπωσης και αφυδάτωσης.

Γράφει ο Χρήστος Παξιμαδάς, Διαιτολόγος-Διατροφολόγος.

Το μπάσκετ είναι ίσως το άθλημα που με συνέπεια μας δίνει χαρές, τόσο σε εθνικό όσο και σε ομαδικό επίπεδο. Για να διατηρούνται οι αθλητές σε τόσο υψηλό επίπεδο σαφώς και περνούν πολλές ώρες στο γήπεδο και παράλληλα ακολουθούν μια καλή και ισορροπημένη διατροφή.
Η διατροφική υποστήριξη του μπασκετμπολίστα εκτός από την απαραίτητη ενέργεια που θα του δώσει, θα βοηθήσει και στην αύξηση της απόδοσής του.
Στο μπάσκετ χρησιμοποιείται το αναερόβιο σύστημα παροχής ενέργειας σε φάσεις όπως η επίθεση και η άμυνα (σπριντ, γλιστρήματα, αλλαγές κατεύθυνσης κτλ) όπου είναι καταστάσεις με υψηλή ένταση και μικρή διάρκεια. Ωστόσο, χρησιμοποιείται και το αερόβιο σύστημα σε καταστάσεις σχετικής ηρεμίας, όπως μπορεί να είναι για παράδειγμα ένα παιχνίδι με χαμηλό ρυθμό και χωρίς ιδιαίτερη ένταση.
Οι αθλητές του μπάσκετ δαπανούν σε έναν αγώνα (ή και στην προπόνηση) τουλάχιστον 500 θερμίδες. Άρα η διατροφική υποστήριξη είναι σημαντική και για την αποφυγή γρήγορης κόπωσης και αφυδάτωσης. Η προσωπική μου άποψη είναι ότι δύο είναι τα βασικά συστατικά για έναν αποδοτικό αγώνα ή/και μια καλή προπόνηση.

Η διατροφή του αθλητή πριν και μετά τον αγώνα ή την προπόνηση

Πριν: Καταναλώστε 200-400 g υδατανθράκων (ζυμαρικά, ρύζι, ψωμί κτλ) 3-4 ώρες πριν τον αγώνα. Αποφύγετε την κατανάλωση φρούτων και λαχανικών 1 ώρα πριν τον αγώνα ή την προπόνηση. Τα φρούτα και τα λαχανικά περιέχουν φυτικές ίνες που είναι απαραίτητες για την κινητικότητα του εντέρου.
Παρόλα αυτά για έναν αθλητή είναι αρκετά δυσάρεστο κατά τη διάρκεια του αγώνα να έχει αυτό το αίσθημα.
Μετά: Η ανάγκη αναπλήρωσης της χαμένης ενέργειας αλλά και των μυών (μυϊκό γλυκογόνο) είναι πολύ μεγάλη. Έτσι, οι τροφές που θα καταναλωθούν έως και 30 λεπτά μετά την προπόνηση ή τον αγώνα, πρέπει να είναι πλούσιες σε υδατάνθρακες ενώ παράλληλα χρειάζεται να περιέχουν και μια μικρή ποσότητα πρωτεΐνης για να επιτευχθεί γρήγορα η αποκατάσταση της ενέργειας του οργανισμού.
Μια τέτοια επιλογή μπορεί να είναι ένα ημιαποβουτυρωμένο γάλα ή γιαούρτι με φρούτο. Όμως ο αθλητής χρειάζεται και ευκολία στις επιλογές του, για παράδειγμα να τις έχει μαζί του στην τσάντα του ή στο ντουλάπι του, επομένως μία μέτρια μπανάνα ή μια αθλητική σοκολάτα είναι ότι πιο εύκολο.
Μέτα πρέπει να καταναλωθεί ένα επαρκές και ισορροπημένο γεύμα. Καλές επιλογές γευμάτων αποτελούν τα μακαρόνια, το ρύζι, οι πατάτες, το άπαχο κρέας, τα λαχανικά και τα φρούτα.

Επαρκής ενυδάτωση

Πίνετε υγρά ανά τακτά χρονικά διαστήματα και πριν αισθανθείτε διψασμένοι. Θυμηθείτε ότι το αίσθημα της δίψας είναι ένδειξη αφυδάτωσης και κατά συνέπεια μειώνει την αθλητική απόδοση. Μία με δύο ώρες πριν τον αγώνα ή την προπόνηση καταναλώστε 2-3 ποτήρια νερό, ώστε να είστε σίγουροι ότι θα αποβληθούν μέσω της διούρησης και του ιδρώτα.
Κατά τη διάρκεια του αγώνα μπορείτε να καταναλώνετε νερό κάθε 15 με 20 λεπτά, ενώ αν ο αγώνας ή η προπόνηση διαρκεί πάνω από μία ώρα μπορείτε να καταναλώνετε ένα αθλητικό ισοτονικό ποτό που να περιέχει ηλεκτρολύτες (Νάτριο, Χλώριο, Κάλιο) και υδατάνθρακα (4-8%).
Οι ηλεκτρολύτες είναι απαραίτητο να περιλαμβάνονται στο ρόφημα για να αναπληρώσουν αυτούς που αποβάλλονται μαζί με τον ιδρώτα. Με την προσθήκη υδατάνθρακα παρέχεται ενέργεια κατά τη διάρκεια του αγώνα ή της προπόνησης και μπορούν να αυξήσουν την αθλητική απόδοση.
Τα αθλητικά ισοτονικά ποτά είναι απαραίτητο να χρησιμοποιούνται στην περίοδο της προετοιμασίας όπου ο αθλητής θα προπονηθεί 2 φορές την ημέρα και μάλιστα σε σύντομο χρονικό διάστημα..

Πηγή: nutrimed.gr

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